Liquid Phase Electron Microscopy
Liquid phase processes are controlled by many physical and chemical parameters. Liquid phase Transmission electron microscopy (LPTEM) enables us to observe liquid processes with both high frame rates and atomic-level resolution.
To allow the electrons to pass through, the liquid sample in LPTEM is sealed between to ultrathin electron transparent windows and the liquid thickness often only a couple of hundred nanometers thick.
If the liquid system can be a microlaboratory with control over applied stimuli and sample conditions , often based on a microfabricated chip. There are also systems for use in scanning electron microscopes or other microscopy systems.
Liquid phase electron microscopy has developed over the past 20 years to give new insights in a range of scientific disciplines from chemical synthesis of nanostructures and electrochemistry in e.g. batteries, to nanoparticle dynamics, softmatter and biology.