MEMS Solar Cell Power Suply – self contained on board or a remote power supply. For electrostatic MEMS the driving voltages is 10-100 Volts with driving currents in the nA range. Able to achieve an open circuit voltage as high as 150 V for a 1 cm^2 solar cell array.
Microengine – brayton power cycle chosen because it is more efficient and easier to fabricate.
Energy from radioactivity – lifetime of hundred years. Used Nickel radio isotope. Currently used in cyborg insects. Has an onboard telemetry system. Has an energy density of 100 MJ/cm^3. Beta electrons released from radioactive Ni thin film. The piezo material converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
Flagellum Powered MEMS – living organisms provide cellular level mechanical movements. E. Coli can be used for locomotion. The power output is 10 fW. The power conversion ratio is almost 100%.
Flagellum Powered Microfluidic Pump – linear array of E. Coli cellsis tethered along the sidewall of a microchannel. The gene that allows rotation in CW was silenced, so each flagellum can only rotate in CCW. The flow rate was 0.25 nL/min.
Micro Flagellar Motor Dynamo – conversion of mechanical energy into electrical power.Power densities of 1 mW/L.
Advantages over current micro power supplies: no overheating, high efficient, highly scalable, cost effective
Disadvantages: Difficult to attach the micro beads to rotating tethered cells, maintaining the motility of cell sis difficult. Cell rotation stops after 2-3 days. A solution is a constant supply of nutrients